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It elicits information about pain intensity, its location (via a body diagram), quality of pain, therapies tried, and past and present medications.
It takes 10 to 15 minutes to complete and is an extremely valuable instrument.
The most important of these is the patient’s report of pain, but other factors such as personality and culture, psychological status, the potential of secondary gain, and the possibility of drug-seeking behavior also deserve consideration.
Frequently, pain cannot be seen, defined, or felt by the examiner, and the physician must assess the pain from a combination of factors.
This scale depicts six sketches of facial features, each with a numeric value, 0 to 5, ranging from a happy, smiling face to a sad, teary face (Fig. To extrapolate this scale to the visual analog scale, multiply the chosen value by two. Multidimensional instruments Multidimensional instruments provide more complex information about the patient’s pain and are especially useful for assessment of chronic pain.
This scale may also be beneficial for mentally impaired patients. Explain to the person that each face is for someone who feels happy because he has no pain (hurt) or sad because he has some or a lot of pain. As they are time consuming, they are most frequently used in outpatient and research settings.
Pain can be described using the numeric rating scale, during activities such as walking, standing, sitting, and routine chores. Medication use, alcohol use, emotional responses, and family responses may also be helpful information to record.
Descriptive words from three major dimensions of pain (sensory, affective, and evaluative) are further subdivided into 20 subclasses, each containing words that represent varying degrees of pain.In addition, it often has an associated autonomic component, such as diaphoresis, capillary vasodilation, hypertension, or tachycardia. Pain etiology By taking a complete history and answering the preceding two questions, the clinician can begin to formulate the causes of the pain.The rest of the history, as well as the physical examination, can be tailored to systematically explore aspects of pain, such as symptoms and physical signs, common to the particular type of pain in question. It is important to remember, however, that to our patients and their families, distress, suffering, and pain behaviors are often not distinguished from the pain itself. Reports of pain may not correlate with the degree of disability or findings on physical examination.
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Referred pain usually arises from visceral or deep structures and radiates to other areas of the body.